Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices™
Raven’s™ Progressive Matrices (RPM) is an IQ test, which contains multiple choice questions pertaining to abstract reasoning. In each test question in the Raven’s Matrices test, the child is asked to identify the missing item that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a matrix, giving the Raven Progressive Matrices test its name.
In 1936 in the United Kingdom, John C. Raven thought that the tests in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results were difficult to interpret. As a result, he developed simple measures of the two main components of Spearman’s g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity, eductive ability, and the ability to store and reproduce information, reproductive ability.
Raven’s Matrices consists of 60 items arranged in five sets (A, B, C, D, & E) of 12 items each. Each item contains a figure with a missing piece. Below the figure are either six (sets A & B) or eight (sets C through E) alternative pieces to complete the figure, only one of which is correct. Each set involves a different principle or “theme” for obtaining the missing piece. Within a set the items are roughly arranged in increasing order of difficulty.
The Raven Progressive Matrices test is a widely used intelligence test in many research and applied settings. In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series. Each set of test questions within the Raven Matrices test progressively harder for the child. As a result of the increasing difficulty, g greater cognitive capacity is needed to encode and analyze questions from the Raven Test.