Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices™
What is the Raven’s Test?
The Raven’s Progressive Matrices is administered as a nonverbal group test. It is typically a 60-item test used in measuring abstract reasoning and regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. Many patterns are presented in the form of a 6×6, 4×4, 3×3, or 2×2 matrix, giving the test its name. All of the questions on the Raven’s progressives consist of visual geometric design with a missing piece. The test taker is given six to eight choices to pick from before filling in the missing piece.
Breakdown of Raven’s Matrices
The matrices are posed in three different forms for test-takers of different ability:
- Colored Progressive Matrices – Designed for younger children (ages 5 – 11), older people, and people with learning issues, these are presented with a colored background to make them more visually stimulating for participants. A few of the hardest items are in black and white. There are 36 items and this test takes 15 to 30 minutes to administer. This is the easiest of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices™.
- Standard Progressive Matrices – These are appropriate for children and teens ages 6 – 16. There are 5 sets of 12 items each (60 in total), with each item becoming progressively more difficult. These are black and white. Administration takes 40 – 45 minutes. These are more difficult than the Colored Progressive Matrices.
- Advanced Progressive Matrices – This set contains 48 items – a set of 12 and another set of 36. They are black and white and become increasingly harder as progress is made through the sets. These questions are geared toward adults and teenagers of advanced intelligence. Administration takes 40 – 60 minutes. These are the most difficult of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices™.
Raven’s™ Progressive Matrices (RPM) is an IQ test, which contains multiple choice questions pertaining to abstract reasoning. In each test question in the Raven’s Matrices test, the child is asked to identify the missing item that completes a pattern. Many patterns are presented in the form of a matrix, giving the Raven Progressive Matrices test its name. We offer samples of matrices in our 100 free practice questions.
In 1936 in the United Kingdom, John C. Raven thought that the tests in use at that time were cumbersome to administer and the results were difficult to interpret. As a result, he developed simple measures of the two main components of Spearman’s g: the ability to think clearly and make sense of complexity, eductive ability, and the ability to store and reproduce information, reproductive ability.
Raven’s Matrices consists of 60 items arranged in five sets (A, B, C, D, & E) of 12 items each. Each item contains a figure with a missing piece. Below the figure are either six (sets A & B) or eight (sets C through E) alternative pieces to complete the figure, only one of which is correct. Each set involves a different principle or “theme” for obtaining the missing piece. Within a set the items are roughly arranged in increasing order of difficulty.
The Raven Progressive Matrices test is a widely used intelligence test in many research and applied settings. In each test item, one is asked to find the missing pattern in a series. Each set of test questions within the Raven Matrices test progressively harder for the child. As a result of the increasing difficulty, g greater cognitive capacity is needed to encode and analyze questions from the Raven Test.